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MAKINHOLE.COM'S GLOSSARY

 

The oil and gas directional and horizontal drilling industry has a very abundant--and sometimes conflicting--vocabulary. To lessen possible confusion, let the following terminology be defined within the context of the makinhole.com website.

 


A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z 

-----[ Top ]

 

3D directional well - a directional well with a planned well path that is not entirely vertically-planar; azimuthal turn exists over a segment or segments of the planned well path. 

 

* - a superscript that denotes a planned well path value.

 

DL - difference in MD* between two consecutive survey stations. (feet or meters)

 

--A--[ Top ]

 

actual well path - a best estimate of where a well bore exists in 3D space, as computed with directional survey data and the minimum curvature survey calculational method.

 

angular deviation - the components of Technical Hole Deviation that address differences between actual and planned angular well bore properties; includes msID, RCID, msAD, and RCAD.

 

auto-guided directional drilling - same as automated directional drilling.

 

automated directional drilling - directional drilling with a system possessing a drilling mode whereby "tool settings" are automatically determined by system software, and frequently and automatically changed/controlled by system hardware, while drilling. The system controller software addresses angular deviation AND lineal deviation, and only requires specification of the actual and current planned well path trajectories. Thus, the system controller software temporarily assumes the role of a traditional directional driller. Current systems, like Baker Hughes Inteq's AutoTrak, can only attempt to automatically control angular deviation in "hold mode" and otherwise requires manual "steer mode" to attempt to control lineal deviation. In other words, their system automatically tries to be "on inclination" but not necessarily also "on depth".

 

Average Absolute msAD - average absolute value of azimuthal deviation associated with real survey stations over the length of drill hole for which a THD log is created. A smaller value usually indicates better directional control performance.

 

Average Absolute msHD - average absolute value of horizontal deviation associated with real survey stations over the length of drill hole for which a THD log is created. A smaller value usually indicates better directional control performance.

 

Average Absolute msID - average absolute value of inclinational deviation associated with real survey stations over the length of drill hole for which a THD log is created. A smaller value usually indicates better directional control performance.

 

Average Absolute msVD - average absolute value of vertical deviation associated with real survey stations over the length of drill hole for which a THD log is created. A smaller value usually indicates better directional control performance.

 

Azi* - planned well bore azimuth at MD*. (degrees)

 

azimuth - the angle of the well bore direction as projected to a horizontal plane and relative to due North. By industry convention, 0 degree azimuth coincides with North, 90 degree azimuth with East, 180 degree azimuth with South, and 270 degree azimuth with West.

 

azimuthal deviation - the difference in azimuth between actual and planned well paths, typically at a specific measured depth. Same as msAD.

 

--B--[ Top ]

 

Boolean set - a mathematical concept whereby the degree to which an element belongs to a particular notion about some domain of definition is classified as completely true OR completely false. For example, consider the domain of all room temperatures; 76.2 degrees Fahrenheit either is or is not a member of the set of "comfortable room temperatures", depending on where the Boolean set boundary is defined.

 

build - drilling directionally with the intent to increase well bore inclination; also refers to increasing and orienting lateral bit force magnitude to or towards the high side of the drill hole.

 

--C--[ Top ]

 

cognitive map - a sketch that presents a causal picture of the association of components within a complex dynamic system, for the primary purpose of better understanding dependency relationships and general cause/effect.

 

complex directional well - basically same as 3D directional well.

 

controllable - a general term given to a system component for which the control thereof is direct. For example, consider driving an automobile with an automatic transmission. Gear selection, the gas pedal (accelerator), and the brake pedal are examples of controllables, while speed is an observable.

 

controller - an algorithm/function that maps input to output, usually implemented in the form of computer software, for the purpose of controlling a device.

 

control parameters - numeric values that are internal to a controller, but directly affect the output of the controller. Control parameters must be "tuned", that is, determined by iterative experience, in conjunction with a subjective goal or a quantitative metric about system performance.

 

--D--[ Top ]

 

directional control performance - a subjective term or quantitative measure related to overall DLS-variance, and the "closeness" of drilling along the planned well path trajectory.

 

directional drilling - the field/industry that encompasses the act of drilling a section of well bore that is intentionally oriented non-vertically; horizontal drilling is a subset of directional drilling.

 

directional plan view - a plot that displays (North/South, East/West) Cartesian coordinates of a well path projected to a horizontal surface plane; also known as map view.

 

directional survey - a summary of geometric information--calculated with directional survey data and a directional survey calculational method (e.g., minimum curvature method)--that pertains to spatial properties (e.g., Cartesian coordinates) of a directional well; sometimes synonymous with directional survey data or directional survey station.

 

directional survey data - typically refers to the "raw" data acquired at a directional survey station, namely, well bore inclination and azimuth at specific measured depths.

 

directional survey station - a reference point that corresponds to a measured depth along the (typically actual) well path where well bore inclination and azimuth are observed/measured and recorded.

 

directional vertical section view - a plot that displays vertical section versus true vertical depth of a well path. Vertical section is the horizontal distance (departure) of a well path projected to a vertical plane of specific azimuth. The specific azimuth typically coincides with the final target azimuth.

 

directional well -  a well bore created by drilling directionally.

 

DLS - abbreviation for dogleg severity. (degrees / 100 feet or degrees / 30 meters)

 

DLS* - planned well bore dogleg severity (e.g., build gradient) at MD*. (degrees / 100 feet or degrees / 30 meters)

 

dogleg severity - a normalized estimate (e.g., degrees / 100 feet) of the overall curvature of an actual well path between two consecutive directional survey stations, according to the minimum curvature survey calculational method. With respect to a planned well path, dogleg severity may at times be synonymous with build gradient and/or turn gradient. (degrees / 100 feet or degrees / 30 meters)

 

drilling directionally - the process of drilling a well bore with sustained and proactive attention to a preferred path; such preferred trajectory comprising non-vertical hole sections.

 

drop - drilling directionally with the intent to decrease well bore inclination; also refers to increasing and orienting lateral bit force magnitude to or towards the low side of the drill hole.

 

--E--[ Top ]

 

E* - planned well bore East (+) / West (-) Cartesian coordinate at MD*. (feet or meters)

 

Excess Measured Depth - the amount of actual hole drilled subtracted by the corresponding planned measured length of drill hole. This value is reported on the THD log header.

 

--F--[ Top ]

 

FDD controller - abbreviation for our patented Fuzzy Logic Drilling Direction controller.

 

FDS - abbreviation for Friendly Drilling Software.

 

FDS.MDE - the run-time file for the daily drilling report software called Friendly Drilling Software. To run FDS, double-click this file (or a Windows Shortcut thereto), or open it from within Microsoft Access. You may download and use FDS for FREE by clicking here.

 

FDS Data.MDB - the Microsoft Access database file, in which the FDS user's well data is stored.

 

Fuzzy - a general term that refers to a system or methodology that to some degree employs the use of one or multiple Fuzzy sets. Fuzzy controller, Fuzzy expert system, and Fuzzy neural net each are examples of different methodological systems that share the employment of fuzzy sets in their designs.

 

Fuzzy Logic - an extension of classical Boolean logic that uses Fuzzy sets rather than Boolean sets; is based on rules of the form "if then " in which inputs convert outputs--one fuzzy set transforming another.

 

Fuzzy Logic controller - a rule based methodology in which system inputs (observables) are systematically and mathematically related to system outputs (controllables). A Fuzzy controller is a highly non-linear function. In the common engineering sense, the formulation of a Fuzzy controller is not model based; that is, the rules which govern the controller are not necessarily derived from a physics-based model of the system. Rather, the designer describes in approximate or vague terms the relationships between quantities thought or desired to hold true. There is nothing fuzzy about the logic itself; it is the words, represented with Fuzzy sets, that are ambiguous or uncertain. With Fuzzy logic a controller may be designed to employ experience and common sense knowledge, since rules-of-thumb exist mainly in the form of linguistic statements that are usually, but not always, true.

 

Fuzzy rule - a logic statement that associates Fuzzy set input to Fuzzy set output. For example, If <Error> is [Near_Zero], Then <DStabilizer_Force> should be [No_Change]. Here, [Near_Zero] is a Fuzzy set that describes the observable <Error> in the vicinity of zero. [No_Change] is a Fuzzy set that describes the controllable <DStabilizer_Force> in the vicinity of zero.

 

Fuzzy set - a mathematical concept whereby the degree to which an element belongs to a particular notion about some domain of definition is classified as completely true (1), completely false (0), or partially true/false ([0-1]). For example, consider the domain of all room temperatures; 76.2 degrees Fahrenheit may be a member of the set of "comfortable room temperatures" to a degree of 0.5, and also of the set of "warm room temperatures" to a degree of 0.5, depending on where the Fuzzy sets (also called degree of membership functions) are defined. The mathematical manipulations of Fuzzy sets--Fuzzy Logic--are not vague.

 

--H--[ Top ]

 

hole deviation - same as Technical Hole Deviation; not to be confused with general "hole deviation", which attempts to explain/model why a well bore can't economically be drilled in a continuously-straight direction.

 

hole deviation log - a well log that conveys the directional well plan, and the associated geometric deviations between the actual well path and the planned well path.

 

horizontal deviation - defines how "left" or "right" the actual well path is relative to the planned well path location and orientation; is easily-visualized with a sketch, and matches directional driller common sense. Same as msHD.

 

horizontal drilling - drilling directionally at a well bore inclination angle exceeding 85 degrees.

 

Horizontal THD Log - a hole deviation log that includes the components of Technical Hole Deviation that address hole deviation in the horizontal sense, namely, msHD, RCHD, msAD, and RCAD.

 

--I--[ Top ]

Inclination and Azimuth

 

Inc* - planned well bore inclination at MD*. (degrees)

 

inclination - the angle of the well bore defined by a tangent line and a vertical line. The vertical line is always parallel to the direction of earth's gravity. By industry standard, 0 degree inclination is vertical (downward pointing) and 90 degrees inclination is horizontal. An inclination (angle) greater than 90 degrees coincides with the term "drilling up".

 

inclinational deviation - the difference in inclination between actual and planned well paths, typically at a specific measured depth. Same as msID.

 

--L--[ Top ]

 

lineal deviation - the components of Technical Hole Deviation that address differences between actual and planned lineal (linear; relating to lines) well bore properties; includes msVD, RCVD, msHD, and RCHD.

 

--M--[ Top ]

 

MD* - the measured depth along the planned well path that coincides with the point along the planned well path that minimizes the 3D distance between where the bottomhole location actually is, and where it is thus preferred. (feet or meters)

 

Microsoft Access - general database software that ships with Professional (or better) Editions of Microsoft Office.

 

Microsoft Excel - general spreadsheet software that ships with Professional (or better) Editions of Microsoft Office.

 

msAD - abbreviation for azimuthal deviation; see table. (degrees)

 

msHD - abbreviation for horizontal deviation; see table. (feet or meters)

 

msID - abbreviation for inclinational deviation; see table. (degrees)

 

msVD - abbreviation for vertical deviation; see table. (feet or meters)

 

--N--[ Top ]

 

N* - planned well bore North (+) / South (-) Cartesian coordinate at MD*. (feet or meters)

 

--O--[ Top ]

 

observable - a general term given to a system component for which there is no direct control thereof, but the value of such component provides pertinent information about the state of the system. For example, consider a heating and cooling system for an enclosed football stadium. The current temperature at various locations throughout the stadium is an observable.

 

--P--[ Top ]

 

planned well path - as a function of measured depth, the Cartesian coordinates, inclination, and azimuth that define the preferred spatial existence of a well bore. The planned well path can be piece-wise continuous, meaning it can change abruptly, typically as the result of new information acquired while drilling (e.g. fault crossing).

 

--R--[ Top ]

 

relative change in azimuthal deviation - quantifies how azimuthal deviation is changing. Same as RCAD. (degrees / 100 feet, or degrees / 30.48 meters)

 

relative change in horizontal deviation - quantifies how horizontal deviation is changing, and leads msHD considerably. Same as RCHD. (feet / 1000 feet, or meters / 304.8 meters)

 

relative change in inclinational deviation - quantifies how inclinational deviation is changing. Same as RCID. (degrees / 100 feet, or degrees / 30.48 meters)

 

relative change in vertical deviation - quantifies how vertical deviation is changing, and leads msVD considerably. Same as RCVD. (feet / 1000 feet, or meters / 304.8 meters)

 

RCAD - abbreviation for relative change in azimuthal deviation; see table. (degrees)

 

RCHD - abbreviation for relative change in horizontal deviation; see table. (feet or meters)

 

RCID - abbreviation for relative change in inclinational deviation; see table. (degrees)

 

RCVD - abbreviation for relative change in vertical deviation; see table. (feet or meters)

 

rotary steerable - a directional drilling system comprising a downhole-adjustable tool located within the bottom hole assembly, which allows for lateral force (magnitude and orientation) control close to the drill bit while drilling and while rotating the drill string.

 

--S--[ Top ]

 

section view - same as directional vertical section view.

 

SES - abbreviation for Stoner Engineering Software.

 

SES.MDE - the SES run-time file. To run SES, double-click this file (or a Windows Shortcut thereto), or open it from within Microsoft Access. You may download SES by clicking here.

 

Stoner Engineering LLC - authors of makinhole.com, SES, and the inventors of Technical Hole Deviation Technology.

 

survey station - same as directional survey station.

 

--T--[ Top ]

 

Technical Hole Deviation - a quantitative description of how a directional well bore trajectory differs from its planned trajectory; mathematically ties a directional well plan to its actual well path. Eight variables collectively define technical hole deviation. Not to be confused with general "hole deviation", which attempts to explain/model why a well bore can't economically be drilled in a continuously-straight direction. Most of technical hole deviation is undefined if a preferred well path is vertical. See table.

 

Technical Hole Deviation Technology - a general term that refers to using Technical Hole Deviation to rationalize directional tool settings while drilling, to monitor directional progress as a directional well is drilled, or to evaluate driller or service company directional control performance.

 

TFMO - abbreviation for tool force magnitude and orientation. (lbf @ degrees)

 

THD - abbreviation for Technical Hole Deviation.

 

THD Technology - abbreviation for Technical Hole Deviation Technology.

 

THD well log - either the Vertical THD Log or the Horizontal THD Log.

 

tool setting - refers to directly controllable settings of a directional drilling tool located in a bottomhole assembly; for example, the net pressure-area force acting at a specified angle in a rotary-steerable adjustable stabilizer.

 

trajectory - same as well path, either actual or planned; the traverse that defines the actual or preferred existence of a well bore via spatial properties.

 

turn - drilling directionally with the intent to change (increase or decrease) well bore azimuth.

 

TVD* - planned well bore True Vertical Depth Cartesian coordinate at MD*. (feet or meters)

 

--V--[ Top ]

 

vertical deviation - defines how "high" or "low" the actual well path is relative to the planned well path location and orientation; is easily-visualized with a sketch, and matches directional driller common sense. Same as msVD.

 

Vertical THD Log - a hole deviation log that includes the components of Technical Hole Deviation that address hole deviation in the vertical sense, namely, msVD, RCVD, msID, and RCID.

 

vertical section - the horizontal distance (departure) of a well path projected to a vertical plane of specific azimuth. The specific azimuth typically is equal to the final target azimuth.

 

--W--[ Top ]

 

well path - actual or planned trajectory defined by Cartesian coordinates, and by angular orientations/properties.

 

--Z--[ Top ]

 

Zadeh, Lotfi - the inventor of Fuzzy sets; professor at the University of California, Berkeley. [Zadeh, Lotfi A. 1965. Fuzzy sets. Information and Control, vol. 8 (June): 338-353.]

 


  
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